The chili pepper (also chile, chile pepper, chilie pepper, or chilli) is the fruit of plants belonging to the members of the family Solanaceae. About thirty species exist as shrubs with brightly colored, mostly spicy, fruits. Chili peppers are widely used in many cuisines to add spiciness to dishes.
The substances that give chili peppers their pungency when ingested or applied topically are capsaicin and related capsaicinoids. Worldwide in 2016, 34.5 million tonnes of green chili peppers and 3.9 million tonnes of dried chili peppers were produced. China was the world’s largest producer of green chilis, providing half of the global total. Global production of dried chili peppers was about one ninth of fresh production, led by India with 36% of the world total.
In India, most households always keep a stock of fresh hot green chilies at hand, and use them to flavor most curries and dry dishes. It is typically lightly fried with oil in the initial stages of preparation of the dish. Some states in India, such as Rajasthan, make entire dishes only by using spices and chilies.
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